The Vaqueros “Cow Men”


Five Vaqueros
Five Vaqueros

some excerpts from Jonathan Haeber’s  article for the National Geographic News written about Kevin Costner’s movie Open Range. Jonathan interviewed Donald Chavez y Gilbert about the Cowboy.

“One of the highest stations you could have in life was to be a caballero,” said Chavez, a resident of New Mexico whose lineage can be traced to the Don Juan de Oñate colony, the caballero who was among the first cowboys in the U.S.

“Even the poor Mexican vaqueros were very proud and there were few things they couldn’t do from a saddle.”

Caballero is literally translated as “gentleman.” The root of the word comes from caballo—Spanish for “horse.” For every caballero there were perhaps dozens of independents—the true “drivers” of cattle: vaqueros.

Vaquero is a transliteration of the words ‘cow’ and ‘man.’ Vaca means ‘cow,'” said Chavez. “Interestingly enough, in Spanish, we call ourselves cowmen; in English, it was demoted to cowboys.

In 1821 Anglo settlers arrived in Texas and became the first English-speaking Mexican citizens in the territory. Led by Stephen F. Austin, they arrived in San Felipe de Austin, Texas, to take advantage of the vast expanse of cattle, free for the taking.

It was something the vaqueros had been doing for 223 years, since 1598, when Don Juan de Oñate, one of the four richest men in New Spain (present-day Mexico) sent an expedition across the Rio Grande River into New Mexico.

Oñate spent over a million dollars funding the expedition, and brought some 7,000 animals to the present-day United States. It eventually paid off; the first gold to come from the West was not from the Gold Rush, but rather from its wool-bearing sheep and then its long-horned livestock.

“Compare the cowboy culture to a car,” said Chavez. “If the vaqueros invented the car, the styles change a little bit, but you still have the basic chassis, four wheels, and a motor. I think it will stay very much the same.”

Donald Chavez’ Cowboy website

Cowboys and Knights

Traditional Spanish riding clothes
Traditional Spanish riding clothes

From Donald Chavez y Gilbert

The Middle Ages found the mounted herdsman a frequent fixture of the semi-arid lands of Spain, but rare in countries like England and France. Strong intrepid horsemen were required to deal with the rugged geography of the Iberian Peninsula, and the wild ganado prieto, predecessor to the savage bull ring black cattle. So integral a part of the Spanish culture was horsemanship, that the world caballero (horseman) became, and still is, the equivalent of the English word for “gentleman.” The word for horse in French is cheval and knight is chevalier. The English term cavalry is derived from Italian. In Spanish the word “horse” is caballo and knight or noble horseman is Caballero.

Keeping in mind that many of the first Spanish vaqueros were well heeled aristocratic Caballero (gentlemen), land holders and noblemen, and certainly inextricably integrated in Spanish society with the culture of Spanish knights, it should come as no surprise that the horseman’s techniques used by knights flowed into the work practices back at the estancia / ranch. Getting down and dirty with the livestock was work relegated to the servants. The Caballero/Vaquero rarely ever got off his horse for any menial purpose. He did virtually everything from the back of his steed.

The 13th century knights and Spanish rancher / Caballeros developed a method of rounding up (rodear) and capturing cattle for branding, etc. borrowed from the knight’s skill of jousting with a lance. This heritage of Knighthood was carried from Europe to the Americas in the 15th century. The technique evolved from the Caballeros use of the lance. In this case the lance is called a garrocha. It was a 12-foot long wooden pole with a blunt tip used by the Garrochista on horseback. The garrocha is carried and used in a fashion similar to the Caballero’s lance. But instead of the Garrochista and the steer racing toward each other as in a knightly joust, the Garrochista chases the steer.

The best website on American Cowboys

Retro Music Mondays – African- American Music – part 5 – Folk Music

Appalachian Folk Music makes me wanna get up and dance. My grandfather and his father and probably his father before that used to play the fiddle. I wish I could’ve heard them play, but I imagine that’s why I like this music so much. It’s in my blood.

Appalachian map
Map of Appalachia

In the 1920s there was a synergy that occurred through a melding together of many musical influences which produced: traditional folk music with a mix sometimes with blues, jazz, country, and blue grass. Appalachian folk music is one example of an influence that precedes country music. Appalachian folk was the traditional music of the eastern states area of Appalachia. This area was populated by the Irish, Scottish, and English immigrants who brought with them their traditional ‘celtic music’, which was fused in America with African music. The banjo, an African instrument, and fiddles (European instruments) are some of the prominent instruments used to produce the folk music of the south.

"The Banjo Lesson," by Henry Ossawa Tanner, 1893. Oil on canvas, 49″ × 35½″. Hampton University Museum
“The Banjo Lesson,” by Henry Ossawa Tanner, 1893. Oil on canvas, 49″ × 35½″. Hampton University Museum

Retro Music Mondays – Ragtime

Ragtime Music is a style of music which was a part of the Popular Music movement.

From Wikipedia

Ragtime (alternatively spelled rag-time or rag time)[1] is a musical genre that enjoyed its peak popularity between 1895 and 1918.[2] Its main characteristic trait is its syncopated, or “ragged,” rhythm.[2] It began as dance music in the red-light districts of African American communities in St. Louis and New Orleans years before being published as popular sheet music for piano. Ernest Hogan was an innovator and key pioneer who helped develop the musical genre, and is credited with coining the term ragtime.[3][4] Ragtime was also a modification of the march made popular by John Philip Sousa, with additional polyrhythms coming from African music.[5] The ragtime composer Scott Joplin became famous through the publication in 1899 of the “Maple Leaf Rag” and a string of ragtime hits such as “The Entertainer” that followed, although he was later forgotten by all but a small, dedicated community of ragtime aficionados until the major ragtime revival in the early 1970s.[6][7] For at least 12 years after its publication, the “Maple Leaf Rag” heavily influenced subsequent ragtime composers with its melody lines, harmonic progressions or metric patterns.[8]



Ragtime originated in African American music in the late 19th century, descending from the jigs and march music played by African American bands.[13] By the start of the 20th century, it became widely popular throughout North America and was listened and danced to, performed, and written by people of many different subcultures. A distinctly American musical style, ragtime may be considered a synthesis of African syncopation and European classical music, especially the marches made popular by John Philip Sousa.



Retro Music Monday

I’m going to start another regular feature about music. I’d like to explore the roots of rock and roll and I’m going to start with Jimmie Rogers (1897-1933) also known as The Singing Brakeman: the Father of Country Music. He brings the blues, country and folk together. One of his most famous trademarks was his yodel.

Jimmie Rogers from the Biography website
Jimmie Rogers from the Biography website

His first job was as a water boy for the railroad and that’s where he learned how to strum and pick the guitar. During his time on the railroads he would’ve heard the work chants of the African American railroad workers. They were called gandy dancers. The British term is navvy from the word navigator.


Some more B.C. history……Dewdney Trail, Cascades Summit and more.

Gold Must be Tried by Fire

Life in Trail wasn’t all bullies and bad times. We had good times alongside the struggles. Sleigh riding was fantastic, swimming, fishing, and water skiing in the summer were awesome. Everyone went to Christina Lake in the summer and Trail residents still do, except now, it only takes them about an hour. When we made the trip in the 1950’s it took all day over the “Cascades Summit” as we called it.  Beginning a few miles south of Rossland, this primitive, winding road was the old Dewdney Trail. The Greyhound bus could not travel that route as the hairpin switchbacks were simply too sharp to negotiate in a reasonable amount of time. Instead, the bus out of Trail went to Rossland, then crossed the border at North Port, Washington. Turning West, if going to Vancouver, the Greyhound proceeded to the crossing at Grand Forks and re-enter Canada at that point…

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I am Canadian – Saskatchewan bound – Part 1

My maternal grandparents were raised in Wiseton and Dinsmore Saskatchewan. Both of their families, one set from Nebraska and the other set from Ontario, arrived in Saskatchewan expecting to make some good money by farming.

Immigration to the Prairie Provinces from Wikipedia:

In the 18th to 19th century, the only immigration western Canada or Rupert’s Land saw was early French Canadian North West Company fur traders from eastern Canada, and the Scots, English Adventurers and Explorers representing the Hudson’s Bay Company who arrived via Hudson Bay. Canada became a nation in 1867, Rupert’s Land became absorbed into the North-West Territories. To encourage British Columbia to join the confederation, a transcontinental railway was proposed. The railway companies felt it was not feasible to lay track over land where there was no settlement.

Back when the British first came to North America, Canada looked like this:

Rupert's Land 1670 extends over parts of Saskatchewan
Rupert’s Land 1670 extends over parts of Saskatchewan

The fur trading era was declining; as the buffalo population disappeared, so too did the nomadic buffalo hunters, which presented a possibility to increase agricultural settlement. Agricultural possibilities were first expounded by Henry Youle Hind. The Dominion government with the guidance of Clifford Sifton, Minister of the Interior in charge of immigration, (1896–1905)[5] enacted Canada’s homesteading act, the Dominion Lands Act, in 1872.

The borders looked like this in 1870. Saskatchewan is part of the North-West Territories.

Canadian provinces 1870-1871
Canadian provinces 1870-1871

An extensive advertising campaign throughout western Europe and Scandinavia brought in a huge wave of immigrants to “The Last, Best West”. (In 1763 Catherine the Great issues Manifesto inviting foreigners to settle in Russia,[6] and in 1862 the United States enacted a Homestead Act inviting immigration to America.[7]) Ethnic or religious groups seeking asylum or independence no longer traveled to Russia or the United States where lands were taken or homestead acts were canceled. The Red River Colony population of Manitoba allowed it to become a province in 1870. In the 1880s less than 1000 non-Aboriginal people resided out west. The government’s immigration policy was a huge success, the North-West Territories grew to a population of 56,446 in 1881 and almost doubled to 98,967 in 1891, and exponentially jumped to 211,649 by 1901.

Canada West poster
Canada West poster
Canada 1882
Canada 1882
CPR land sales ad
CPR land sales ad
Canada 1895
Canada 1895

Ethnic Bloc Settlements[9] dotted the prairies, as language groupings settled together on soil types of the Canadian western prairie similar to agricultural land of their homeland. In this way immigration was successful; new settlements could grow because of common communication and learned agricultural methods.

Census divisions 2005
Census divisions 2005 showing ethnicity spread over provinces

Canada’s CPR transcontinental railway was finished in 1885. Immigration briefly ceased to the West during the North West Rebellion of 1885. Various investors and companies were involved in the sale of railway (and some non railway) lands. Sifton himself may have been involved as an investor in some of these ventures.[10] Populations of Saskatchewan and Alberta were eligible for provincial status in 1905.

Canada 1905
Canada 1905

Immigration continued to increase through to the roaring twenties. A mass exodus affected the prairies during the dirty thirties depression years and the prairies have never again regained the impetus of the immigration wave seen in the early 20th century.

My great grandfather Alfred Sharples was one of those people who took out a homestead out in Wiseton, Saskatchewan. He had emigrated from Walton-le-Dale, Lancashire, England with his first wife in 1883. The family sailed on the SS Polynesian from the Allan Line. They left from Liverpool and landed in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

SS Polynesian of the Allen Line
SS Polynesian of the Allan Line

They settled in Brantford, Brant, Ontario and had three daughters.

Sadly, Alfred’s first wife, Lizzie, died in 1905 before they could make the move to Saskatchewan. We don’t know why or how, but Alfred was on his own with three children to raise. Needless to say, he was eager to find a mom for them. Somehow he wound up in the Zephyr Hotel where his next wife was the cook. Her father, William Bennett Foote, was the owner of the hotel. I guess Alfred liked her, Alfretta’s, cooking and decided she would be a good mother to his children. They were married 1907 in Toronto, Ontario.

By the time Alfretta and Alfred were married Alfred already had the farm in Wiseton. He went back and forth between Saskatchewan and Ontario until the land was ready for settling. When my grandfather was born in 1910, he was born in Zephyr or Uxbridge, Ontario. Between 1910 and 1920 they joined Alfred during the summer in Saskatchewan and went back to Zephyr during the winter. Once the farm was ready for the family Alfretta and Floyd joined Alfred in Wiseton full time. The family is living in Wiseton in the 1921 census record. By this time the older daughters were married and gone.

Young Floyd, my grampa
Young Floyd, my grampa in ringlets

About fourteen kilometers from their farm in Wiseton was the village of Dinsmore where my grandmother was living with her parents. I guess they had some community dances back then and that’s where they met. I’ll tell more about my grandmother in the next post.

I am Canadian – the Scottish Connection

I think this will be my last post for ancestors on my father’s side. John Bean is my 7th great-grandfather. He was born in Scotland and came to North America probably 1652 after the Battle of Worcester. He landed in Exeter, New Hampshire and is the progenitor of hundreds of thousands of people including Alan Bean who landed on the moon. So to end off this part of the Canadian chapter I will give you a little history on John Bean.


From Wikipedia

John Bean of Exeter, New Hampshire was born John MacBean before 1634, in Strathdearn, Inverness-Shire, Scotland. His father was Donald MacBean and his grandfather was Aaron MacBean – b. 1570 in Inverness-Shire. Strathdearn lies about ten miles south of the village of Inverness. These are pictures of Inverness nearby to Strathdearn.

Inverness on the River Ness
Inverness on the River Ness
Castle Inverness in winter
Castle Inverness in winter

John was one of 272 Scottish Prisoners of War from the Battle of Worcester who arrived in Boston on 2-24-1652 to be sold as indentured workers to pay for the cost of their transportation.

From Wikipedia

The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England, and was the final battle of the English Civil War. Oliver Cromwell and the Parliamentarians defeated the Royalist, predominantly Scottish, forces of King Charles II. The 16,000 Royalist forces were overwhelmed by the 28,000 strong “New Model Army” of Cromwell.

Oliver Cromwell at the battle of Worcester
Oliver Cromwell at the battle of Worcester
Boston was where John was destined after the Battle of Worcester
From Boston John made his way north to Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
From Boston John made his way north to Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire

John d. between 1-24-1718 and 2-18-1718 at Exeter, NH. He is buried in the Church yard of the Congregational Church (Old Meeting House) in Exeter, NH.

John Bean's gravestone at the Congregational church in Exeter
John Bean’s gravestone at the Congregational church in Exeter
Water Street, Exeter New Hampshire
Water Street, Exeter New Hampshire


Here’s what is written on astronaut Alan Bean’s (my 7th cousin once removed) website:

The official records show that when Apollo 12 flew to the Moon, the crew was Pete Conrad, Dick Gordon, and Alan Bean. That’s true…as far as it goes.

We also represented the hopes and dreams of the scientists and engineers who designed the rockets, spacecraft, and experiments. Our skilled instructors and flight controllers were there, too, as were our families and friends and all the American taxpayers who paid the bill. I found out later that as I stepped on the Moon on the morning of November 19, 1969, I represented my forefathers of the Clan MacBean.

The first mention of the Clan MacBean in Scottish history occurred about A.D. 1300. The word “Bean”, at that time, meant “the lively one”, and the “Mac” signified “the son of Bean”. I think my mother would have agreed, when I was in my twos and threes, that she had a lively one.

The clan flourished in the Scottish highlands. John MacBean brought the clan to the new world, but not by choice. He was in the ranks, fighting for the Scottish King Charles II against Cromwell, the British dictator, at the Battle of Worcester. The Scots lost the battle and John MacBean was deported to Boston as a prisoner, arriving there on February 24, 1652.

John Bean (the ship’s clerk had anglicized his name) was sold as an indentured servant to a sawmill operator in Exeter, New Hampshire. The boss’s daughter quickly fell in love with him and, a short while later, they were married. Pete and Dick have laughed at this story and said, “The gift of great good luck was in the Bean genes even way back then.”

Editor’s note: A widely circulated story claims that Alan placed a piece of MacBean tartan on the Moon. We have the following from Alan, written on 30 April 2005: “As I remember it, I took Clan McBean Tartan to the moon and returned it to Earth. I did not leave any Clan McBean Tartan on the surface. I did, in fact, give a piece of the Tartan to the Clan McBean and also to the St. Bean Chapel in Scotland. And I’ve still got some of it in my possession. I did not, however leave any of it on the moon.”

Allan Bean
Alan Bean

Here’s how the line goes from me to John Bean of Exeter, New Hampshire:

me- my father – my grandmother, Rose Morrill – my great-grandfather, William Charles Morel – my 2nd great grandmother, Lucy Bean – 3rd great-grandfather, Joseph Bean – 4th great-grandfather, Samuel Bean – 5th great-grandfather, Samuel Bean – 6th great-grandfather, James Bean – 7th great-grandfather, JOHN BEAN of Scotland and Exeter, NH


The Founding of Boston

I am Canadian – Hartford, Connecticut – the New England Connection

One of my paternal 9th great grandfathers was John White. This is a little history from his line of the woods.

From the Society of the Descendants of the Founders of Hartford, Connecticut

The Founders of Hartford

Elder John White came in the ship “Lion” which sailed from London, June 22, 1632; arrived at Boston, Sept. 16. Settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts; freeman, March 4, 1633 ; townsman there, Feb., 1635. He sold the greater part of his land in Cambridge before June, 1636, and prob. removed to Hartford with Hooker’s company.

Model of the Lyon
Model of the Lyon

(From the Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut

Thomas Hooker

Representation of Hooker in Connecticut
Representation of Hooker in Connecticut

1586-1647, Puritan clergyman in the American colonies, chief founder of Hartford, Conn., born in Leicestershire, England. A clergyman, he was ordered to appear before the court of high commission for nonconformist preaching in England and fled (1630) to Holland. In 1633, Hooker immigrated to Massachusetts, where he was pastor at Newtown (now Cambridge). He had a dispute with John Cotton and apparently was discontented with the strict theological rule in Massachusetts. After a group of settlers had been sent ahead in 1635, he and many of his flock moved in 1636 to found Hartford, where he was pastor until his death. Hooker was one of the drafters of the Fundamental Orders (1639), under which Connecticut was long governed and which represent his political views. He also promoted a plan for the New England Confederation.)


He (John White) was one of the original proprietors of Hartford, and his home-lot in 1639 was on the east side of the highway now Governor St., and was about ten rods south of the Little River.

Map of settlements at Hartford - John White's plot is in the South Plantation area
Map of settlements at Hartford – John White’s plot is in the South Plantation area

He was chosen townsman, 1642, 1646, 1651, and 1656; he was also frequently a juror. His name is fifth on the list of signers of the agreement to remove to Hadley, Massachusetts, and he was one of the first townsmen chosen there, 1660, and again 1662, 1663, slid 1665 ; he and his wife returned to Hartford, were received to 2d Ch., Hartford, from Hadley, April 9,1671 ; ordained Ruling Elder, March, 1677. He d. Jan. 1683-4.

His wife’s name was Mary Leavitt, and she d. before him.-

Their children were:

i. Mary, m. Jan. 29, 1646, Jonathan Gilbert, of Hartford; d. in 1650.

ii. Nathaniel, b. about 1629 ; one of the original proprietors of Middletown ; deputy from 1661 to 1710, and held otherpublic offices; m. (l) Elizabeth-; d. Aug. 27, 1711, age 82; his 2d wife was Martha, widow of Hugh Mould, and dau. of John Colt, of New London.

iii. John, of Hartford and Hatfield; m. Sarah, dau. of Thomas Bunce, of Hartford ; d. in Hatfield, Sept. 15, 1665.

iv. Lieut. Daniel, b. 1634; settled in Hatfield; m. Nov. 1, 1661, Sarah, dau. of John Crow, of Hartford and Hadley; d. July 27, 1713.

v. Sarah, m. (l) Stephen Taylor, of Hatfield, who was buried Sept. 8, 1665 ; (2) Oct. 15, 1666, Barnabas Hinsdale, of Hatfield and Deerfield ; killed at Bloody Brook, Sept. 18, 1675 ; (3) Feb., 1679, Walter Hickson, of Hatfield. She d. Aug. 10, 1702.

vi. Ensign Jacob, b. in Hartford, Oct. 8,1645; settled in Hartford; freeman, 1668; surveyor of highways, 1670; townsman, 1682, 1687, 1691, 1696; m. before 1683, Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas Bunce, of Hartford; died in 1701.

“This holy man, having faithfully served the Lord in his place, and that also with good success through grace (He was a good man and God was with him), fell asleep in Christ, and went to receive his reward, Jan., 1683-4.”1


Colonial Days of Connecticut from Wikipedia

Dutch fur traders from New Amsterdam, now New York City, set up trade on the site as early as 1623, following Adriaen Block‘s exploration in 1614. The Dutch named their post Fort Goede Hoop or the ‘Hope House’ (Huys de Hoop) and helped expand the New Netherland colony, roughly analogous to the modern-day New York, New Jersey & Connecticut Tri-State Region, to the banks of the Connecticut River. Prior to the Dutch arrival, the Native Americans who inhabited the area had called it Suckiaug. By 1633, Jacob van Curler had added a block house and palisade to the post and New Amsterdam had sent a small garrison and pair of cannons. The fort was abandoned by 1654, but its neighborhood in Hartford is still known as Dutch Point.

The first English settlers arrived in 1635. Pastor Thomas Hooker and Governor John Haynes led 100 settlers with 130 head of cattle in a trek from Newtown (now Cambridge, Massachusetts) in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and started their settlement just north of the Dutch fort. The settlement was originally called Newtown, but was changed to Hartford in 1637 to honor the English town of Hertford the explorer also created the town of Windsor(created in 1633).These towns have been here for over 375 years.

The fledgling colony along the Connecticut River had issues with the authority by which it was to be governed because it was outside of the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony’s charter. Therefore, Thomas Hooker wrote the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, a document investing the authority to govern with the people, instead of with a higher power. Hooker stated May 31, 1638:

The foundation of authority is laid, firstly, in the free consent of the people.

Some historians believe Hooker’s concepts of self-rule were the forerunners of the United States Constitution. The Orders were ratified on January 14, 1639 and were transcribed into the Connecticut Colony records by future Governor Thomas Welles.


Colony of Connecticut
Colony of Connecticut

Stanstead, Quebec is an eastern township in Quebec where many people all over North America orginate. We call Stanstead the blackhole of genealogy. The records are scant mostly due to fire (1851 census records) and because most of the people who lived there were Protestants. Protestant churches were not well established so there were itinerant pastors who came through to do baptisms, burials and marriages and their records were kept at their parish very often somewhere in Vermont. It’s hit and miss to find any documentation for ancestors who sojourned through the eastern townships.

My father’s family moved out west from Stanstead, Quebec relatively late in the 1940s. My great great grandmother, Laura Jane Kenaston, married my great great grandfather William Wallace Austin and they lived in Vermont before moving into Minton, Stanstead, Quebec where Laura Jane’s parents were living. We can’t find many conclusive records for Laura’s father’s family but we do have very good records for her mother’s family. Her mother’s name was Ethelenday White. She was born in Tunbridge, Orange, Vermont to Simeon White and Eunice Cressy.

William Wallace Austin unfortunately has no paper trail, but DNA tests indicate he is descended most probably from Robert Austin of Rhode Island.

Here’s the trail from me to my 9th great grandfather, John White:

Me, – my father, Ivan Austin, born in Quebec – my grandfather, Percy Austin born in Quebec – my great grandfather, William Joseph Austin born in Quebec – my great great grandfather, William Wallace Austin probably born in Vermont + Laura Jane Kenaston born in Hatley, Stanstead, Quebec

My great, great grandmother, Laura Jane Kenaston- my 3rd great grandmother Ethelenday White born in Vermont, died in Quebec – my 4th great grandfather – Simeon White born in New Hampshire, died in Quebecmy 5th great grandfather, Henry White, born in Connecticut, died in Vermont -my 6th great grandfather, Thomas White – born and died in Connecticut – my 7th great grandfather, Jacob White- born and died in Connecticut – my 8th great grandfather, Nathaniel White- born in England, died in Connecticut- my 9th great grandfather, Elder John White – born in England, died in Connecticut

The bolded parts indicate when and where the movements of the family occurred. The fifth and sixth great grandfathers made moves first from Connecticut to Vermont, New Hampshire and then from those states into Quebec. Of course John White was born in England and died in Connecticut being the first generation to make the move from the old world to the new.

Conceptual Image of Elder John White, member of Rev Hooker's Comapny, and one of the founders of Braintree, Hadley, and Hartford.
Conceptual Image of Elder John White, member of Rev Hooker’s Comapny, and one of the founders of Braintree, Hadley, and Hartford.
State Street looking east in Hartford
State Street looking east in Hartford 1914
Old State House, Hartford - Charles Bulfinch (1763-1844), architect.
Old State House, Hartford – Charles Bulfinch (1763-1844), architect.

Sites, Seals and Symbols of Connecticut